Quality Exams

Form 4 KCSE 2023 History Paper 1

Published on December 14th 2023 | 7 mins , 1386 words

KCSE 2023 History Paper 1


1. Identify the arm of the government that interprets law in Kenya

  • Judiciary

2. Identify the most important social activity of the Bantu in the 19th century

  • Circumcision

3. Which Christian missionary group established a centre for the freed slaves

  • Church Missionary Society(CMS)

4. Name the leader who led the Nandi resistance against the British Invasion

  • Koitalel Arap Samoei

5. State two categories of people who may qualify for registration as citizens

  • A person who has been lawfully residing in Kenya for a period of not less than 7 years
  • A child adopted by a Kenyan citizen
  • A person who has been married to a Kenyan citizen for a period not less than 7 years

6. Identify one category of land holding in Kenya 

  • Public land 
  • Community land
  • Private land

7. Give two reasons why the Akamba collaborated with the British

  • They had been weakened by the 1899 famine
  • They feared the British Military power/strength
  • They feared the British brutality/ruthlessness
  • Some of their leaders were influenced by some British officials / Mwatu wa Ngoma by John Ainsworth
  • They needed protection from enemies
  • To retain leadership positions

8. Who was the head of executive arm of government in Kenya during the colonial period

  • Governor 

9. Name two books which were authored by Jomo Kenyatta

  • Facing Mount Kenya
  • The Life of Chief Wang'ombe
  • My People of Kikuyu
  • Suffering without Bitterness 

10. Name and state the role of the officer in charge of Administration in the National Assembly in Kenya

  • The Clerk to the National Assembly

Roles of the clerk to the National Assembly

  • Presides over the election of a new speaker of the National Assembly
  • Is the Accounting Officer of the National Assembly
  • Is in charge of the administration / management of the National Assembly
  • Is in charge of the finances in the National Assembly
  • Manages the chamber
  • Maintain parliamentary house proceedings (Hansard)
  • Advises the speaker of the National Assembly on procedure to be followed
  • Prepares the Bill for presidential assent
  • Maintains a library for use in the house

11. Outline two qualifications for a person to appointed as Commissioner of Independent Electoral and Boundary Commission of Kenya 

  • should not have held the office / vied for election as an MP/MCA for the last 5 years
  • should not be a member of the governing council of a political party
  • should not a state / a public officer

12. Apart from Kadhi Court, name two other subordinate courts in Kenya

  • The magistrate's court
  • The Court Martial
  • Local tribunals established by the parliament

13. State two principles of Devolved Government of Kenya

  • They are based on democracy and separation of power
  • They shall have reliable sources of revenue to facilitate effective delivery of services
  • They shall ensure gender balance and no more than 2/3 of either gender are holding office/position

14. state the purpose of the Equalization Fund in Kenya

  • To provide basic services to the marginalised areas to the level of others

15. Highlight two pressure groups which were pushing for multiparty democracy in Kenya in the 1990s

  • The civil society
  • The lawyers
  • Journalists / Media Persons / The Press
  • Intellectuals/University Lecturers
  • Clergy/ The Church
  • The Politicians

16. Name the first prime minister of Kenya

  • Jomo Kenyatta

17. Identify one category of co-operative societies found in Kenya after Independence. 

  • Producer cooperatives
  • Savings and Credit Cooperative Societies
  • Consumers cooperatives

SECTION B (45 Marks)

18. (a) Name Kalenjins sub-groups in Kenya

  • Nandi
  • Kipsigis
  • Tugen
  • Pokot 
  • Marakwet
  • Saboat
  • Keiyo
  • Okiek

18. (b)Explain five economic activities of the Luo during the 19th century

  • They practised pastoralism/cattle keeping
  • They practised iron working, which they had borrowed from the Bantu
  • They hunted wild animals to supplement their diet
  • They traded with their neighbours i.e Abagusii and Abaluyia
  • They raided their neighbours i.e. Maasai/Nandi for their animals to replenish their stock
  • They practised craftsmanship / basketry
  • They practised fishing in lakes/rivers and other water sources
  • They gathered wild fruits to supplement their diet

19. (a) Identify five groups of early visitors into the East African Coast up to 1500 AD

  • Egyptians
  • Greeks
  • Romans
  • Turks
  • Persians
  • Malaysians
  • Chinese
  • Arabs
  • Portuguese
  • Indians
  • Phoenicians

19. (b)Discuss five factors which led to the Decline of the city states along the Coast

  • Invasions by the Wazimba / cannibalist/man eaters thereby making people flee
  • They experienced poor climate / water shortage in some towns 
  • They were attacked/conquered by the Portuguese, who had greater military strength than them
  • Economic activities were slowed down due to conflicts between the Portuguese and the Omani Arabs over the control of the settlements
  • Rivalry among the city states for the control of the Indian Ocean trade which made them unable to help each other
  • Disruption of the Indian Ocean Trade by the Portuguese thereby denying/depriving them of revenue
  • Diversion of Trade goods by some African middlemen to the Northern routes, thereby slowing down the trade / their importance as trading centres

20. (a) Name three missionaries who came to Kenya by the 1960's

  • Johann Rebmann
  • Ludwig Krapf
  • Thomas Wakefield
  • Jacob Erhardt

20. (b) Discuss six results of the Maasai collaboration with the British in Kenya

  • The Maasai were divided into two sections / Laikipia and Ngong leading to separation of related families
  • Lenana was recognized as the paramount chief 1901 thereby elevating his status
  • It led to land alienation where the Maasai lost their territorial land to the British as they were pushed to the reserves
  • The Maasai freedom to conduct rituals was restricted as the British allowed them only five miles for initiation rites
  • It led to the disruption of the Maasai cattle economy, leading to reduction of wealth as number of animals kept was reduced /Destocking policy
  • The Maasai lost their independence as their territory was declared a British protectorate in 1895
  • The Maasai were hired by the British as mercenaries to fight resisting communities like Nandi / Agikuyu

21. (a) Identify three African Nationalists who were imprisoned at Kapenguria  in 1952

  • Jomo Kenyatta
  • Achieng Oneko
  • Fred Kubai
  • Bildad Kaggia
  • Kungu Karumba
  • Paul Ngei

21. (b) Discuss six political challenges experienced in Kenya between 1980 and the late 1999

  • Kenya become a dejure one party state following a constitutional amendment in 1982 thereby undermining democracy
  • There was a coup attempt in 1982 which created a state of uncertainty  
  • The alleged rigging of election of 1988 which provoked Kenyans to agitate for Multiparty democracy
  • The murder of Robert Ouko which created ethnic animosity
  • The removal of tenure of the Attorney General, Chief Justice, The Controller and Auditor General which perpetuated misuse of power / resources

SECTION C (30 Marks)

22. (a) State three roles of a presiding officer during a general election

  • Assists the elderly / illiterate voters to make their ballots
  • Report any breach of peace in the polling station
  • Ensure every eligible voter casts their vote only once
  • Conduct polls in an orderly manner
  • Ensure impartiality in their station
  • seal ballot boxes and transfer them to counting centre
  • count marked ballots in the presence of party agents 
  • Announce the results of votes counted in the polling station

22. (b) Discuss six functions of the Public Service of Kenya 

It ensures continuity in government operations as the holders of offices come and go, but the service is permanent 

It implements government programmed policies through the various departments

It collects government revenue Kenya Revenue Authority / issuance of licences 

Provide services to the citizens / people through various ministries / state departments

It maintains law and order through various security organs

It maintains government records through various agencies / such as Registrar of Persons 

It interprets government policies to the people through the ministry of interior

23. (a) Give the composition of the supreme court of Kenya

  • The Chief Justice 
  • The deputy chief justice 
  • Five other judges

23. (b) Explain six functions of the high court of Kenya

  • Exercises unlimited original jurisdiction in criminal / civil cases
  • Hears appeals from the subordinate courts
  • It protects the rights and fundamental freedoms in the Bill of Rights by granting requisite rights which may have been denied 
  • Supervises subordinate courts within their areas of jurisdiction
  • Determines cases regarding petitions arising from general or by-elections
  • It exercises revisionary powers by correcting decisions made by lower courts
  • Addresses questions concerning the interpretation of the constitution
  • It hears appeals from the tribunal appointed by the constitution to consider removal of persons from office except the president

24. (a) Outline five principles of the public finance in Kenya

There shall be openness / accountability in financial matters

There shall be special provision for the marginalised  areas

public money shall be used in prudent and responsible way

There shall be shall responsible and clear reporting of financial management

There shall be equitable distribution of financial resources

The benefits and burdens of financial resources shall be shared between the present and future generation

24. (b) Describe five ways in which the National Government of Kenya spend its revenue

  • To fund transport infrastructure
  • To establish schools 
  • To develop health facilities
  • To undertake general repair and maintenance
  • To pay wages and salaries to public servants
  • To repay loans and grants
  • To pay subscriptions to international organization
  • To give grants to county governments
  • To pay rent for kenyan embassies abroad
  • To import petroleum products
  • Uses 15% of its revenue to fund county governments in line with the constutution

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