Quality Exams

Form 4 History Paper 1 KCSE 2024 Projection

Published on May 9th 2024 | 10 mins , 1885 words



1.  Identify the branch of history that deals with how people are ruled.     (1 mark)

Political History

2. Give two plain Nilotes In Kenya. (2 marks)

(i) Samburu

(ii) Maasai



(v) Burkeneji

3. Identify two political functions of the Orkoiyot among the Nandi in the 19m century. (2marks)

(i) Advised council of elders

(ii) They settled disputes

(iii) Advised warriors before raiding or waging war

4.  Name the two Portuguese captains who led the Portuguese conquest between 1503 — 1505.(2marks)

(i) Ruy Lourenco Ravasco

(ii) Francisco de Almeida

5.  State one condition one has to fulfil in order to be registered as a Kenyan citizen. (1 mark)

(i) A person who has been married to a Kenyan citizen for a period of at least 7 years

(ii) A child adopted by a Kenyan citizen

(iii) A person who has been lawfully living in Kenya for a continuous period of at least 7 years 

6. Identify one level of conflict.  (1 mark)

(i) Individual against individual

(ii) Individual against the state

(iii) Community versus community / group versus group

(iv) State versus state.

7 Name the first prime minister in Kenya. (1 mark)

Mzee Jomo Kenyatta

8. Define the term  'democracy'  (1 mark) 

Refers to : government in which people freely elect their leaders and enjoy basic rights and freedoms

9. Mention Two oaths that were administered to the Agiriama during resistance to British invasion.(2marks) 

(i) Fisi oath — men 

(ii) Nlukushekushe oath — women 

10 Name two ways through which the colonial government controlled migration of Africans to urban centres? (2marks) 

(i) Introducing the kipande system 

(ii) Taking head count of those allowed to live in urban areas. 

(iii)  Enacting / setting up laws / rules on migration into urban centres 

(iv) Allowing only those who had specific activities to live in urban centres 


11.  Give two early political associations in Kenya up to 1939. (2marks) 

(I) East African Association (EAA) /kikuyu association 

(ii)  Kikiyu central Association (KCA) 

(iii) Kavirondo tax payers welfare associations 

(iv) Ukamba members Associations 

(v) Taita Hills Associations 

(vi) Coast African Association. 

12.  Identify the leader who stepped down as the president of Kenya African Union for Jomo Kenyatta. (1mark) 

James Gichuru 

13.  Mention two members of the cabinet in Kenya. (2marks) 

(i) The president 

(ii) The deputy president 

(iii) Cabinet secretaries 

(iv) Attorney general 

14. Give the philosophy that was explained in Sessional paper No.10 of 1965. (1 mark) 

African socialism 


15.  Identify two groups that pressurized for re-introduction of multi —partism in Kenya.(2marks) 

(i) Civil societies 

(ii) Religious groups 

(iii) International community 

(iv) Multiparty activists like Raila Odinga, James Orengo, Martin Shikuku 

16. Give one way in which one can become a member of county assembly of Kenya.   (1 mark) 

(i) Through elections 

(ii) Through nomination   

17. What is the main source of revenue for the Kenyan government



18. (a) state five main reasons for the migration of the Luo from their cradle land

(i) Natural calamities in their cradle land

(ii) Search for fresh pasture and water for their livestock

(iii) External attacks from some neighbouring communities

(iv) Internal conflicts within the community

(v) Population pressure in their homeland

(vi) Human and livestock epidemics in their homeland

(vii) Spirit of adventure by some individuals

(b) Explain the five political aspect of the Akamba during the precolonial period (10 marks)

(i) They had a decentralized form of organization during the colonial period

(ii) Related families formed a clan council (Mbai) which dealt with land disputes, property ownership and compensation for wrongs done to members of other clans

(iii) Non-related families organized themselves into a council  (Nzamba) which presided over civil and criminal cases

(iv) Several villages formed a political unit (Kivalo) which had power to declare war or sue for peace and solve inter-village disputes

(v) All adult men were involved in leadership as warriors to defend the community and guard homesteads at night

(vi) Juniour elders (Anake) defended the community


(vii) Medium elders (Nthele) helped in dministering and settling disputes 

(viii) Full elders (Atumia ma kivalo) — were fully respected for their wisdom and leadership qualities. 


19 (a) Give three reasons why the British used indirect rule in some parts of Kenya during colonial period. (3 marks)

(i) They lacked adequate funds / inadequate funds

(ii) Had inadequate personnel

(iii) Wanted to avoid resistance

(iv) The method had succeeded in India and Uganda

(v)There existed traditional systems of government in some parts of Kenya.


(b) Explain six reasons why settler farming was encouraged in Kenya during the colonial period.(2 marks)

(i) They wanted to make Kenya a white man's country

(ii) The white highlands / Kenya highlands had conducive climate for settler farming 

(iii) Kenya lacked natural resources like minerals to be exploited

(iv) The settlers were to finance the administrative cost of the colony.

(v) The settlers were expected to produce raw materials for many industries in Britain

(vi) The colonial government to check / counter Indian / Asian influence in Kenya. 

(vii) The settlers were to help meet economic costs of building the railway line. 

20.  (a) State fire characteristics of Independent churches and schools during the colonial period. 

(i) Most independent churches and schools regained some traditional customs such as female 
 circumcision and polygamy 

(ii) The independent movements were not against education and Christianity, but against western 
influence of the missionaries and the type of education and literature offered. 
(iii)The leadership in both schools and churches was African 

(iv) The independent schools and churches had their following from the rural masses. 

(v) The independent schools and churches were connected with political parties which were founded to oppose colonial rule. 

(vi) They retained some of the aspects of mainstream churches. 

(b) Explain challenges faced by trade unionist during the colonial period. (10 marks) 

(i) Their leaders were harassed and victimized by the white settlers and the colonial government 

(ii) Their membership was small as African workers were forced to migrate between their rural  homes and urban centres frequently. 

(iii) They lacked adequate support as most people did not back them due to ignorance 

(iv) The unions had a shortage of experienced personnel to effectively manage them (vii) They suffered shortage of funds to implement their programmes 
(viii) They were affected by leadership wrangles which undermined their activities. 

5 x 2 = 1 0 marks 


21. (a) Name the three communities that offered mixed reaction to British occupation of Kenya. (3marks) 

(i) Luo 

(ii) Agikuyu

(iii) Akamba 

(b) Explain six reasons why armed resistance failed in Kenya. (12marks) 

(i) Kenyan communities were organized in small autonomous communities, which did not provide 
a common front to face the enemy 

(ii) The Kenyan communities had disunity 

(iii) The African communities lacked sophisticated weapons. They used spears, stones , bows and arrows 

(iv) African warriors were ill trained /ill prepared 

(v) They had poor leadership 

(vi) Some African communities collaborated with the British against fellow Africans 

(vi) The warriors were demoralized when their leaders were killed and captured. 

(vii) African communities were affected by epidemics and natural calamities that reduced 

their population 

(vii) The British used trickery / divide and rule when dealing with some communities 


22.  (a) State five limitations to the Right to life as per the new constitution. (5marks)

(i) When a person acts in self defense / defense of property

(ii) When security officers execute a lawful arrest

(iii) When security officers acts to prevent the escape of a person who is lawfully detained.

(iv) When security officers suppress a riot / rebellion /mutiny

(v) When security officers acts to prevent an individual from committing a crime (vii, When the country is at war.

(viii) When a person is sentenced to death by a court of law.

(b) Explain the constitution making process in Kenya. (10 marks)

(i) Civic education— making the people aware of the need to have n new constitution.

(ii) Collecting view s from the public about their wishes.

(iii) Documentation of the peoples views and publication oftlte draft.

(iv) i lolding of pubi is hearing throughtout the country so us to gct the people's views

(v) Holding the national constitutional conference for delegates member of national assembly and commissioners

(vi) Drafted constitution is taken to parliament for discussion and thereafter published by the Attorney General

(vii) The refendum is held

(viii) Parliamentary approval — Attorney general takes it to parliament for approval

(ix) Presidential assent

(x) Promulgation — the president presents it to the people.

23.  (a) Give three sources of Kenyan laws.(3marks)

(i) African traditions and customary laws such as marriage and inheritance

(ii) Religion eg laws used in kadhi courts

(iii) English common law which is the most commonly applied

(hi) Statutory law legislated through acts of parliament

(v) Judicial precedents which are rulings of the superior court

(vi) The Kenyan constitution which is the fundamental laws of the land.

(b) Explain six functions of the county government. (12 marks)

(i) To develop agriculture in the county

(ii) Develop farming in the country

(iii) Provide health services through construction of health facilities /provision of ambulance / 
vaccination / immunization.

(iv)Provide public health through refuse removal /social waste disposaUlicense food premises that sell food

(v) Environmental management through control of air / water / noise pollution

(vi) Provision or recreational facilities — sport stadia/ libraries/ museums.

(vii)Regulate cultural activities through licensing casinos / cinemas / theatre groups /video shows

(viii) Regulate trade activities through construction of county roads / street lightning /traffic /parking / ferries / harbours

(ix) Provide preprimary education / vocational education / polytechnics / home craft / child care centres.

24.(a) Give five ways the national government uses its revenue(5 marks)

(i) Construction of national infrastructure e.g roads, railways and airports.

(ii) Financing national development projects like electricity and irrigation schemes 

(iii) Constructing health facilities

(iv) Constructing higher education institutions eg university

(v) Paying of salaries of state officers

(v) Maintaining and repairing infrastructure

(vi) Servicing external and domestic debts (viii)Maintenance of foreign embassies

(ix) payment for social services like free maternal health care, free primary and secondary school educati'on


25. Explain five importance of preparing the national hatlgel In Kenya. (10 marks)

(i) Enables the government to exphrin the public the tax structure

(ii) Enables Mie government to source for revenue file its programmes

(iii) It create confidence among foreign countries eg donors, World Bank , IMF

(iv) Enables the government to assess its performance in the previous year.

(v) Provides valuable information to people interested in investing in the country

(vi) Enables the government to set aside some fluids to use incase of emergencies

(vii) enables the government to prioritize development needs in the country

(viii) Ensures there is it balance in the in the country's revenue and expenditure hence avoiding budget 


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