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Form 4 History Paper 1 Revision Questions and Answers

Published on May 19th 2024 | 17 mins , 3360 words


1. What is dictatorship Government? (1mk) 

a) A system of Government where the ruler has total power over his subjects. 

b) A government that exercise rule forcefully/suppress subjects 

2. Name one archaeological site found in Tanzania. (1mk) 

i) Kondoa 

ii) Singida 

iii) Olduvai gorge 

iv) Simila 

v) Eyasi 

vi) Garusi 

vii) Apis rock 

3. What does independent theory state about the origin of Agriculture? (1mk) 

i) That Agricultural practice in Africa developed an independent from the Mesopotamian  one. 

ii) Independent theory that agriculture developed independently along river valleys in  different parts of the world as local conditions dictated 

4. State two examples of regional trade. (2mks)

i) Long distance trade 

ii) Trans-Saharan trade 

5. State one disadvantages of animal transport. (1mk) KCSE 2011P2Q4/2022P2Q5: State two limitations/disadvantages of using animal transport 

(i) They are only limited to daytime and cannot travel at night 

(ii) They are cumbersome/some are stubborn when tired and heavily loaded 

(iii) Have limited carrying capacity/carry small loads compared to vehicles 

(iv) Are slow 

(v) They are limited to short distances as they get tired/fatigued over long distances 

(vi) Pack animals can be attacked by wild animals/tsetse flies/diseases 

(vii) They are limited to certain areas 

(viii) Animals fall sick/attacked by diseases 

6. State two advantages of drum beating over smoke signal to pass information in the  traditional Africansociety. (2mks) 

i) Sound can be heard even during the night when you cant see the smoke ii) During wet season when it is not easy to light fire to produce smoke drum sound can  be heard. 

iii) Drum sound can convey a number of messages while the smoke can’t

 7. What was the main factor which influenced the growth of Johannesburg city? (1mk) KCSE 2015P2Q8: Give the main factor for the growth of Johannesburg 

(i) THE MAIN:Discovery of gold deposits at Witwatersrand 

8. Highlight two ways in which a large population influences industrialization. (2mks)

 i) Large population after non-skilled and skilled labour needed for industrialization. 

ii) Large population offer market for manufactured goods 

9. Name the company that was used by the British to administer her colonies in West Africa. (1mk) 

i) The Royal Niger Company

10.State one reason why the British did not help SamoreToure. (1mk) 

i) The British did not want to be in conflict with the French, keeping to the Berlin  conference. 

ii) The British denied Toure support against the French in line with their policy of non interference and his desire for slave trade. 

11.State two strategic reasons which made European countries to scramble for colonies  in Africa. (2mks) 

(i) The Egyptian question where European wanted control of Suez Canal in Egypt

(ii) Need to control source of river Nile by the British/Germans/French 

(iii) Need to control Congo River by European powers 

(iv) Need to control Mediterranean Sea and Tunisia by France and Italy 

(v) Need to control West Africa by the French after losing Egypt to the British 

(vi) The activities of king Leopold of Belgium 

12.Identify two countries in West Africa that were under Mandate commission of the  League of Nations. (2mks) 

i) Togo  

ii) Cameroon  

13.What was the main reason why the league of the nations formed? (1mk) KCSE 2001PP2Q12: Give the main reason why theLeague of Nations was established. (1mark) KCSE 2002PP2Q12: Give the main reason why theLeague of Nations was formed in 1919.(1 mark) KCSE 2011PP2Q12: Give the main reason for the formation of the League of Nations in 1919. (i) To promote/sustain/preserve international peace and security and prevent occurrence of  another war. 

14.State two importance of Odwira festival in ancient Asante Empire. (1 mark) KCSE 2018/2005: Give one function of the odwira festival among the Asante during the 19th century. (1 mark) (i) It enabled the Omanhenes to pay allegiance and show loyalty to the Asantehene/king (ii) It was used to honour and appease the dead 

(iii) It was held to settle disputes among the omanhenes 

(iv) It provided/symbolized unity among the states 

(v) It was held to entertain people. 

15.Name two political systems deployed by the French during their colonial in West  Africa. (2mks) KCSE 2008P2Q:Give one method used by the French to administer their colonies in Africa.(1 mark) (i) Assimilation 

(ii) Association 

16.Name two alliances that fought against each other in the First World War. (2mks) i) Triple alliance/Central Powers/Axis Powers 

ii) Triple entente/Allies/Allied Powers 

17.Who was the founder of convention people’s early party in Gold Coast. (1mk) i) Kwame Nkrumah


18.a) state five uses of fire by early man (5mks) KCSE 1997PP2Q:Discuss the benefits of the discovery of fire to early man. 

KCSE 2003PP2Q:What were the advantages of the discovery of fire by the early man. KCSE 2004PP2Q: What were the advantages of discovery of fire by the early man KCSE 2007P2Q1:State two advantages of the discovery of fire by early man KCSE 2009PP2Q: Describe six ways in which the discovery of fire improved early man’s way of  life. (12 marks) How did the invention of fire improved early man’s way of life? (10marks) 

(i) Provided warmth to early man in the night and during cold spells and seasons (ii) Fire flames provided light at night in the dwelling sites and caves, which facilitated other  productive activities at night. 

(iii) Cooking/roasting food like roots and meat that were inedible when raw to add flavour,  extract poison and make it palatable and nutritious. 

(iv) It improved hunting activities as bush fires pushed animals into confined areas/muddy  swamps and lakes where they got stuck and be killed easily. 

(v) Enhanced security and protection of early man by frightening/keeping away dangerous  wild animals and other possible sources of danger 

(vi) Enhanced tool making by hardening and sharpening the tips of wooden tools like  harpoons and spears, which then improved hunting activities. 

(vii) Enhanced communication by early communities between people living at different  places through fire and smoke signals. 

(viii) Fire was used in food preservation by drying fish and meat over the fire. 

(ix) Fire was used to bake and harden wood for special use eg stools and hoe sticks. (x) Baking and hardening pottery which was used for storage, cooking and a trade item in  the Neolithic age. 

b) Describe the cultural practices of early man during the old Stone period. (10mks) KCSE 2006PP2Q: Describe the way of life of early human beings during the Old Stone Age period. 

(i) Man used stone to make simple Oldowan tools for defense/getting food e.g. choppers. 

(ii) Man lived in small groups in groups in order to assist each other 

(iii) Man obtained his food through hunting wild animals and gathering edible fruits and  roots in the forests to supplement his diet/food. 

(iv) Man walked naked for had not invented clothing but the body was hairy to keep him warm. 

(v) Man ate raw foode.g. Lizards, rodents, birds eggs and insects for he had not invented or  discovered fire. 

(vi) Man used crude forms of communication like whistling, growling and gestures. 

(vii) Man had no specific dwelling places as he lived in forests, tree tops and caves to shelter  from predators and dangerous animals who attacked/threatened them. 

(viii) Man used simple hunting methods like chasing the wild animals, laying traps and throwing  stones at them.

19a) Identify five ways through which iron working skills spread in Africa. (5mks) 

KCSE 2018PP2Q: Highlight two factors that facilitated the spread of iron working skills in ancient  times. (2 marks)  

(i) Due to trade between Africa and Mesopotamia. 

(ii) Due to migration of Bantus from Congo Basin and southern Cushites who spread the  skills to Africa. 

(iii) Through intermarriages where communities with iron working skills and those from  families of black smiths passed the knowledge to others. 

(iv) Through warfare during inter-tribal wars. 

(v) Through travelers and messengers who gave or received gifts of iron to their homes. b) Explain five effects of iron working in Africa. (10 marks) 

KCSE 2012PP2Q19B: Explain six effects of iron working technology on African communities  before the 19th century. (12marks) 

KCSE 2016PP2Q19B: Describe six results of iron working technology on African  communities before the 19th century. (12marks) 

(i) Improved agriculture-as iron tools were efficient and used to clear more land for  farming eg axe and pangas. 

(ii) Increased migration and settlements over wide areas due to more food production  and clearing of forests 

(iii) Led to specialization and division of labour as there were people who engaged in iron  working/blacksmiths accorded status in the community. 

(iv) Increased warfare and intercommunity conflicts as there were weapons made from  iron like spears and arrows used to fight other communities. 

(v) It led to decline of other metals like copper and bronze 

(vi) Led to rise of urban centers/towns likeMeroe, Cairo, Tunis and Axum. 

(vii) Led to development of trade as demand for iron and iron tools rose. 

(viii) Increased migration as communities used iron tools which were efficient to protect  themselves from enemies. 

(ix) Increased food production as more land was brought under cultivation using iron  tools and implements, thus ensuring food security. 

(x) Emergence of powerful states like empires and kingdoms as iron weapons were used  co conquer/annex weak communities and territories. 

(xi) Communities were able to protect themselves against enemies using iron tools. 

(xii) Iron implements were used as a medium of exchange thereby facilitating trade  transactions. 

20a) List five pack animals used in ancient transport (5 marks) 

(i) Ox 

(ii) Donkey 

(iii) Horse 

(iv) Camel 

(v) Mule

(vi) Indian elephant 

(vii) Water buffalo 

(viii) Goat 

(ix) Dog 

20b) Explain five ways in which radio is important as a means of communication 

KCSE 2022P2Q21B: Explain five ways in which television is important as a mean of  communication. (10 marks) 

i. It cerate job/employment opportunities e.g to broadcaster/sound engineers/sigh language  interpreter 

ii. It brings out reality in the news by giving sounds 

iii. It promote trade/commercial activities through advertising of goods and services iv. It enable people to get information from different parts of the world 

v. It promotes the entertainment industry whereby artists get opportunities to display their  talents/drama/music 

vi. It promotes education by disseminating knowledge through various educational  programmes/channels 

vii. It promotes culture through airing programmes showing cultural activities of diverse  communities 

viii. It broadcast news/ideas which keep people informed about local/global affairs

 21a) Identify three methods used by Europeans to acquire colonies in Africa. (3mks) 


(i) Signing treaties with African rulers/diplomacy/collaboration 

(ii) Use of military force/expedition/conquest to conquer/subdue 

(iii) Use of treachery/deception/divide and rule of playing off one community against the  other in order to weaken them 

(iv) Through company rule-using chartered trading companies 

(v) Enticing/luring chiefs with gifts like clothing 

b) Explain six results of the collaboration between Lewanika of the Lozi and the British in  the 19th century. (12 marks) 

KCSE 2005P2Q: What were the results of collaboration between Chief Lewanika of the Lozi and the  British in the 19th century? (10 marks) 

(i) Lewanika retained position of the Paramount Chief of the Lozi with no authority. (ii) It led to abolition of traditional practices e.g., slavery and witchcraft in Bulozi. (iii) It led to development of schools, hospitals, and transport and communication  network by the BSACO in Barotseland. 

(iv) Led to alienation of Lozi land for European/British settlement. 

(v) Led to forced labour by Africans on settler farms. 

(vi) BSACO exploited minerals in Barotseland. 

(vii) Lozi lost their independence to the British as colonial rule was established in  Northern Rhodesia, today called Zambia.

(viii) It led to forced taxation to raise funds for administration 


22a) State three factors which led to emergence of Asante Empire. (3mks) 

KCSE2001/2015P2Q22B: Discuss six factors which led to the rise of Asante kingdom/empire by  the 19th century. (12 marks) 

(i) The Trans-Atlantic slave trade which brought wealth that developed the kingdom to  prosperity 

(ii) Able/shrewd/courageous rulers/leaders e.g.,Opoku Ware, Obiri Yeboah and Osei  Tutu who were courageous and development conscious 

(iii) Unity and stability in the kingdom through the golden stool and odwira festival which  bounded the people together 

(iv) Strong agricultural base that provided food 

(v) The centralized political system of administration under Asantehene which provided  stability as there was a clear command 

(vi) The kingdom had a large efficient, strong and standing army with guns and gun  powder that defended and expanded the empire through conquest 

(vii) Availability of gold which generated wealth to further development 

(viii) The odwira festival brought the leaders/people together thereby making the empire  more cohesive 

(ix) Asante people were brave and proud who were determined to free themselves from  oppressive rule and create a strong state* 

(x) Strong unity of Akhan state around Kumasi which were strongly knit by the Oyoko  clan* 

b) Describe the political Organization of Asante Empire. (12mks) KCSE 1998/2005 

(i) Asante empire had three divisions: Kumasi, Amatoo States and Provincial Asante 

(ii) The empire was ruled by a king Asantehene based at Kumasi with the advice of the  union Council of state kings called Omanhenes 

(iii) State kings called omanhenes assisted the Asantehene to administer the kingdom and  each had a black stool which was a symbol of unity in the state 

(iv) The emperor’s position was hereditary which reduced succession disputes. 

(v) Omanhenes swore oath of allegiance and loyalty to Asantehene 

(vi) The empire was united by the golden stool and the annual odwira festivalwhich  bound all clans and Asante state together 

(vii) The kingdom had a large efficient, strong and standing army that defended and  expanded the empire through conquest of other states and maintained law and order (viii) Conquered state was ruled by lesser kings as provinces of the Asante.

(ix) Empire had judicial court as Kumasi headed by Asantehene while the omanhenes  tried minor cases at the provinces.

23a) Identify three differences between the French and British systems of administration of  their colonies. (3mks) KCSE 1997/2010: Explain six differences between the use of British indirect rule and the French  assimilation policy. (12 marks) 

(i) The British appointed traditional rulers as chiefs while French handpicked  assimilated Africans as chiefs 

(ii) British gave traditional rulers and chiefs more power while French undermined  African chieftaincies 

(iii) British colonies were administered by a Governor accountable to Britain while  French colonies governed as federations or provinces of France 

(iv) British administrators used a mixture of amateurs and professionals while French  used military officers 

(v) The British mainly applied indirect rule while the French mainly applied assimilation,  and later association 

(vi) Laws applied in British colonies were enacted in the legislative councils of the  colonies while laws applied in French colonies were legislated in France Chamber of  Deputies 

(vii) British indirect rule preserved African culture while French assimilation undermine  African culture 

(viii) Elite in British colonies remained colonial subjects while assimilated Africans in  French colonies became French citizens 

(ix) British colonies elected representatives to the legislative councils in the colonies  while French elected their representatives to the Chamber of Deputies in France 

Explain six factors that undermined the application of the French policy of assimilation in  West Africa. (6mks) 

KCSE 2013P2Q22B: Explain six problems experience by the French administration in Senegal (12 marks) 

KCSE2018P2Q22B: Explain six challenges which were experienced in the implementation of  assimilation policy in Senegal. (12 marks) 

(i) Africans were unwilling to abandon/forsake their culture which was deeply rooted  in hence the policy required patience and consumed time. 

(ii) The French were mainly motivated by economic factors like the need to acquire raw  material and markets from the colonies, which undermined assimilation policy 

(iii) Fear among European Frenchmen and traders that assimilated Africans could  become their serious economic rivals especially in trade. 

(iv) Assimilation policy was expensive to implement in West Africa as it required schools,  hospitals and other facilities. 

(v) Traditional African rulers and chiefs did not want to lose their  authority/position/power/rule over the assimilated Africans. 

(vi) Muslims in Senegal resisted the French attempt to convert them to Christianity,  thereby posing a challenge. 

(vii) French parliamentarians and citizens resisted assimilation for fear of being  outnumbered in the Chamber of Deputies and pass laws that favoured blacks. 

(viii) Racial discrimination as real Frenchmen never accepted and acknowledged  assimilated Africans as their equals.


(ix) Poor transport network hampered mobility to reach certain areas 

(x) Language/communication barrier made administration system ineffective 

(xi) Inadequate finances to sustain their operations 

24a) Identify three demands which were presented by Austria to Arabia following the  Sarajevo assassination in 1994. (3mks) 

Ultimatums/conditions/demands presented to Serbia by Austria after tge Sarajevo  assassination 

(i) Apology to Austria Hungary over the assassination. 

(ii) Explanation for the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand and his wife Sophie 

(iii) Suppression of anti-Austrian publications and organizations 

(iv) Participation of Austrian officials in the inquiry 

(v) Dismissal of all officials whom Austria objected. 

(vi) Allow Austrian police to enter Serbia and ensure that these demands are met. 

b) Explain six reasons why Allies defeated the central powers during Second World War.  (12mks) 

KCSE 2002PP2Q: Describe three factors that enabled the allied powers to win the Second World  War. (3 marks) 

(i) The allied powers had many powers/nations supporting them with massive combined  resources that sustain them in a prolonged war. The axis powers remained four:  Germany, Bulgaria, Austria and Turkey 

(ii) Support from USA who provided vast resources and military power to the Allies after  the Pearl Harbour attack. 

(iii) Allied forces had superior weapons eg atomic bomb that was hit on Japan’s Hiroshima  and Nagasaki. 

(iv) Axis powers suffered from acute shortage of valuable raw materials like  oil/rubber/nickel/cotton to sustain their military and the economy due to prolonged  war. 

(v) Axis powers made grave/serious/tactical/costly mistakes eg the use of battleships by  Japan instead of aircraft carriers. 

(vi) Allied powers designed methods of checking the swift German attacks through  air/naval superiority. 

(vii) Germans ‘failure to effectively control her expansive conquered territories created  division as some joined allied forces to fight her. 

(viii) Russia’s attack on Germany following her rearmament. 

(ix) German’s army was overstretched beyond capacity and was thinly spread/distributed on  the Russian Front, France and Mediterranean Sea. 

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